A scientist who uses carbon 14 dating is measuring
It was developed right after World War II by Willard F.Libby and coworkers, and it has provided a way to determine the ages of different materials in archeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.
Typically, the object must be less than 50,000 or so years old.
Radiation counters are used to detect the electrons given off by decaying Carbon-14 as it turns into nitrogen.
In order to date the artifact, the amount of Carbon-14 is compared to the amount of Carbon-12 (the stable form of carbon) to determine how much radiocarbon has decayed.
After the organism dies it stops taking in new carbon.
To measure the amount of radiocarbon left in a artifact, scientists burn a small piece to convert it into carbon dioxide gas.